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In this expanded study, we use sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nr ITS) to test the phylogenetic hypothesis obtained from analyses of cp DNA sequence data.Reticulate evolution is common among angiosperms (Stebbins, 1947) and may be one explanation for incongruence between organellar and nuclear phylogenies.In the fossil record, pollen from Sapotaceae first appear in the Palaeocene of Europe (Kedves, 1967), and by the early Eocene (ca.50 Mya) the group appears to have become widespread.In the present study, we use Bayesian reconstruction of ancestral areas (Huelsenbeck and Bollback, 2001) to discriminate between the two hypotheses, long-distance dispersal and boreotropical relict distribution, that may have caused the distribution patterns in extant Sideroxyleae.Sometimes nuclear ribosomal DNA (nr DNA) and organellar DNA data support different topologies of phylogenetic trees (e.g., Smedmark and Eriksson, 2002).

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Incongruence between the two data sets was examined with a nuclear low copy gene phylogeny to discover any occurrences of reticulate evolution.Hybrids are usually sterile, but a new fertile species may form through doubling of the chromosomes, allopolyploidy (Stebbins, 1947).If polyploidy is rare in tropical or subtropical plants, we would expect reticulate evolution to be uncommon as well.Similar tropical or subtropical amphiatlantic disjunct distributions are seen in several other eudicot groups.

By incorporating a dimension of absolute time, dated phylogenies have been able to provide different explanations for this type of fragmented distribution depending on when lineages occurring in different continents diverged.If bird dispersal was primarily responsible for distributing the group, we would expect to find that lineages have moved between geographical regions at different times, perhaps more at random without any specific pattern.

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